Research

Research

Map of Trade

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The Cloth Above was exported to Indonesia

 

Motives and the technique of repetition. The symbol of a lion, this was a way of honouring and using the logos and symbols what was significant in Indonesia at the time. 

Court Room Costume

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Painted and Printed Textiles

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Stella McCartney

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Geometry Shapes: Reference for day 1

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3DDA 

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I love the way the choker acts a very simplistic intricate and delicate ornament around the neck which enhances and accentuates the neck. I worked with a similar idea of using strings and sticks to work around the head and neck and make interesting designs which would look impactful yet delicate. 

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Architecture

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Beijing National Stadium

 

Also known as Bird’s Nest, this phenomenal stadium was built for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. The idea for this amazing structure was the result of the cooperation of Chinese and international architects and artists.

As soon as man realized he is in the need of a shelter, architecture started developing. Over a long course of human history, the art of building has conjured up many grand, beautiful and astounding structures, monuments to the perfect marriage of science and art. Each historic period is marked by one or more world-famous architectural achievements, special because of their scale, engineering, materials or ornaments. Whether these architectural landmarks are dedicated to religious or secular purpose does not impact their value, while they stand proud as epitomes of human intellect and spirit. http://www.cuded.com/2014/04/famous-architecture-of-the-world/

Product Design 

Saif Faisal Fruit Bowl

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Early Favela Chair by Fernando and Humberto Campana for Edra, Italy, 2003

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Campana Brothers 

 

 

The furniture by Campana Brothers particularly appealed to me as my style looked like that. Raw in its approach using wood and basic structures. A skeleton-like structure, with organic shapes and structure. If I were to expand my project I would develop my work in a similar manner as my tutor suggested that looking at my work he was reminded of the Campana Brother's work. Neutral and natural colours, organic and simplistic in nature. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illustration 

Mumbai Project

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Mumbai Project 

 

This is an illustration project done to depict Mumbai and the various different aspects of Mumbai. Wordplay and puns have been used in these illustrations which is why I was drawn to these Illustrations. 

Simplistic colours and minimal detail is used to create maximum impact. That is what the project was about. Lost letters, using the one letter that we got and then using that Letter to create an image and story around it. Hence this local project helped me with the way I could use words and images to communicate a message. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graphic  Communication 

Suruchi Choksi

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Suruchi Choksi 

 

Suruchi Choksi is an Indian Artist who works with words as a way of visual communication. When we were given the topic "Fear" and strong phrases expressing the same, mind instantaneously took me back to the time I saw her work exhibited at The Loft Gallery in Mumbai in 2016. Her work has a sense of simplicity yet uniqueness. Using the raw form of human handwriting.

Jenny Holzer

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Jenny Holzer 

 

Jenny Holzer's work is a commentary on the societal forms and conceived mindsets of people. Her work is a reflection of her close observations of what the world around her looks like and thinks like. Themes such as intimacy and love, feminity, male dominance as well as spirituality have been depicted through her work. I love how she used words and showcases them through different media such as LED screens, found objects such as marble benches, or simply use the walls to plaster her thoughts in a chronological manner. 

 

Along with the way she presented her work I also loved how she depicted the fears of people and the general chaos and chatter of life. Through our unseen messages conversation, the fear of being Lonely was expressed which I delved deeper into, using both my artists as inspiration. Choksi's work was taken inspiration for the technical aspect and Holzer's work for the portrayal of human emotion. Tieing in both the technical aspects as well as the thematic aspect. 

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/jenny-holzer-1307

 

Both artists chosen were from Primary research. I saw Choksi's work in Mumbai in a gallery called "The Loft." 

I saw Jenny Holzer's work in the Tate Museum London. 

 

Camden Street: Primary Research

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Fashion Communication

 

 

Fashion Communication : Mark Borthwick

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Mark Borthwick

 

Borthwick's work is particularly appealing to me because I love how there is a narrative in the work. There are stories and the essence of communication and plot. The characters have distinctive features and the images have a striking air of eeriness. The idea of exploring nudity as a part of photography and subject as well is very appealing and I would like to explore the same in my work. 

 

There is a sense of unsettling and disturbing feeling to his work which was appealing to me as he discards traditional ways of styling and photography. This is done by heightening the communicative nature of the images. Blurring the lines between abstract photography as well as fashion communication. 

 

https://www.vfiles.com/vfiles/4023/media/96684

Ib Kamara

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Ib Kamara 

 

I love Ib Kamara's style of working with clothes and elements of fashion. Unlike traditional ways of styling, he too breaks the norm and conveys a message and essence of the character through the way he styles them. 

I love the usage of bizarre items being placed on the body to emphasise either the garment or the clothes, or the narrative. The bizarreness of the styling is inspiring and daunting and hence I chose one of his works as my inspiration for the themes provided to us. 

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Collection Project 

 

In class, we were supposed to arrange the things we had with us in a different order. Sometimes in the order of utility or sometimes in the order of value. This was the starter exercise of our project, and later when I went out I collected images of people and houses. The doors of peoples houses, as well as their clothes hanging in their lawns and so forth. I wanted to target the idea of invading privacy through the collection of highly personalised things and memories of people, however, as I brainstormed more ideas and discussed with my tutor my second idea of the absurdity of colonisation stood out. And I started working on gathering my collection based on the research I did. 

 

 

Images from the movie

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Tate Visit:

Carrie Mae Weems 

 

On my visit to Tate for the collection project, Weems stuck out the most for me. Being an African woman, her cultural roots go deep into the history of slavery of her people. This was very interesting to see as she used her collection to talk about something which is distinctly personal to her but is also marks as a point in the history of slavery of the Africans. 

 

Her work is simple yet impactful. Using very simplistic images to show what it meant to be a slave to the white-skinned. What it meant to be stripped of human dignity and made victims of slavery, just because of something as superficial as skin colour. 

 

When I saw this work it took me back to the time I used to read about the colonisation of India in my history class. The way the Britishers took over and made the Indians a slave to their "great" culture. 

 

Hence through Carrie Mae Weems work, I had the impulse to delve deeper into my roots and carefully find images which would be impactful to show in a class full of diversity, as they can learn about what the Indians went through because of the "British Raj". 

I then started looking for images which would show this in a very subtle yet impactful manner on how the lives of the Indians had turned around in the blink of an eye. 

The British Indian Passport:

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The reason I chose this image is that I wanted to shed light upon the absurdity of the concept of the Indian passport is under the clutches of the British. This image also points out how our passport says "Indian Empire" and not simply the Indian Passport. 

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Raising the babies of the Britishers. These Indian ladies, out of their will have to now suddenly serve the British. Carrying forward the idea of slavery from Weems work, the African Lady raising a white baby similarly the same can be spotted here. The image has the foundation of the contextual reference I was exploring which is the power play and the subtle implications of it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas Factory Project  

Christoph Weber

 

 

On Fold, Christoph Weber’s second solo exhibition at projected, he proposes a new body of sculptures, where the artist’s known ability to defy the quality of the materials he works with and his interest in the process-based approach to art are clearly evidenced. Far from being a literal explanation of what the subject of the show is, On Fold, serves as a short, sharp statement to experience Weber’s work and his rich exploration of the sculptural possibilities.

 

The act of folding refers to a humble, simple, gentle action. It also denotes a certain sense of softness, which may seem contra-posed to the inherent nature of some of the media used by Weber: concrete, steel, lead. On Fold is precisely about focusing on this antagonistic notion: going against the raw nature of the material to subvert it and move from there putting together what seems impossible to be connected. In a way On Fold is about finding new relations, transforming and finally expanding the idea of sculpture.

 

Blei (gefalzt), is a work of lead on wood which hangs on the main gallery wall. Two unrolled lead sheets are seamed together resulting in a wavy, uneven metallic surface. The idea of sculpture and its tridimensionality notion is challenged here, as the work may be perfectly approached as a painting.

 

Untitled (Involuntary Amalgamation) is an elegant sculpture where Weber joins stainless to regular steel, two materials that conventionally are never put together. A slender rod leaning on the wall, a work where the linking bond, the juncture between the two materialities is the focal point. In this sense, the work associates visually with a smaller, lighter piece, Carton Pierre, a collage of concrete traces and white paper-mâché on canvas. In contrast to what happens in Blei (gefalzt), the “folding” concept may refer here to the idea of the “edge”, the sharp upright crease in the centre of the piece that being first experienced as a two-dimensional work is expanded through its

edge to a third plane object.

 

An interesting relation is created in the gallery space among three main concrete works: the two Untitled (Stahl, Beton) and Beton (um eine Kante gebogen). In the three sculptures one concrete slab, (in two cases combined with steel), appears gently cracked, smoothly collapsing or sensually folding against the surface it leans on. It feels very much as one would be looking at one single work, in motion. Three developments of one similar gesture, an action in transition, unfolding, evolving and adjusting to the space. The element of time, important in Weber’s thinking and artistic vocabulary is very present in these works as well as his interest in playing with the idea of the site-specificity.

 

Two more works stand out in the gallery space: béton brut matrix and Untitled (Ideal Opposition Proposition). The first one is a combination of one drawing, sketching supposedly a column, with three free standing elements very much resembling a pedestal. Made in oak wood and steel they are in fact one unit, being the steel structures the unneeded mould or protecting shell for the oak base. An interesting decomposition exercise where, again, folding or better unfolding takes place and where the notions of drawing, moulding, casting, and object of display/support are touched. Untitled (Ideal Opposition Proposition) is a sculpture made with a glossy concrete slab supported by a 4-legged steel structure. Simple, direct, bare, seemingly without purpose, the work becomes sophisticated when we realise that on top of the concrete slab two thin lead pieces adhering to it as membranes, seem to have been left there, as in a casual, irrational gesture.

 

Last but not least, Untitled, rests on the white surface of the bench. A prismatic concrete piece almost fully covered by a voluptuous wrapping layer of wax. On Fold at its most, and a nice link to Weber’s 2012 exhibition at ProjecteSD*.

 

*Untitled (Wachsfaltung) is a simple foil of bent concrete originally cast flat between two layers of wax, that were finally melted away from the work. This work was presented on the white surface of the bench in Weber’s first exhibition “10, 25, 80” held in ProjecteSD, in 2012.

The Information from Above Has been taken from :

“About.” Art Viewer, 14 Feb. 2017, artviewer.org/christoph-weber-at-projectesd/.

 

Tate Reference :

Guerrilla Girls: Tate 

 

In 1971 the art historian Linda Nochlin published a groundbreaking essay Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? In it, she investigated the social and economic factors that had prevented talented women from achieving the same status as their male counterparts.

 

By the 1980s art historians such as Griselda Pollock and Rozsika Parker were going further, to examine the language of art history with its gender-loaded terms such as ‘old master’ and ‘masterpiece’. They questioned the central place of the female nude in the western canon, asking why men and women are represented so differently. In his 1972 book Ways of Seeing the Marxist critic John Berger had concluded ‘Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at’. In other words, Western art replicates the unequal relationships already embedded in society.

 

In what is sometimes known as First Wave feminist art, women artists revelled in feminine experience, exploring vaginal imagery and menstrual blood, posing naked as goddess figures and defiantly using media such as embroidery that had been considered ‘women’s work’. One of the great iconic works of this phase of feminist art is Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party, 1974–9.

 

Later feminist artists rejected this approach and attempted to reveal the origins of our ideas of femininity and womanhood. They pursued the idea of femininity as a masquerade – a set of poses adopted by women to conform to social expectations of womanhood.

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Spirals Sculpture

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Juliane Chariere 

 

Parasol unit foundation for contemporary art is delighted to present “Julian Charrière: For They That Sow the Wind”, a first solo exhibition in the United Kingdom for this French-Swiss artist. It will include sculpture, documented performance, installations, photographs and film.

 

Charrière is a conceptual artist whose activities and interventions during the first decade of his career have taken him to some of the remotest regions of the planet, researching geology, biology, physics, history and archaeology. Much of his work is concerned with time, the continuous cycle of past, present and future, as well as sudden and gradual physical transformations that have occurred naturally or due to human activity. Creating works while exploring ecological and environmental issues in specific locations, Charrière examines how humanity interrelates with the natural order. A significant part of his oeuvre to date has led him to scrutinise the actual and dominant demands for technological advances, most of which depend on further depleting the Earth’s natural resources and have vast implications for the future of our ecological systems.

 

Among the several installations exhibited at Parasol unit by this Berlin-based artist is “Future Fossil Spaces”, 2014, a large configuration of thick salt bricks extracted from the Salar de Uyuni salt deposits in Bolivia, South America, a region now commonly referred to as the ‘lithium triangle’. The chemical element lithium is an essential part of the batteries that power our electronic devices. The film “Somewhere”, 2014, and the photographic series “Polygon”, 2015, document the devastation caused by human activity in Semipalatinsk, the site in Kazakhstan where, between 1949 and 1989, the Soviet Union conducted 456 nuclear tests. Charrière’s investigations for “Polygon” were prompted by J.G. Ballard’s short story, “The Terminal Beach”.

 

In the upper gallery, three installations make connections between past and future via the fleeting present. While raising existentialist questions they also have an ethereal beauty. In a series of large photographs, “The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories”, 2013, Charrière is seen as a fragile silhouette melting the iceberg beneath his feet with a blowtorch. The image acts as a catalyst, a projection surface, inviting every spectator to imagine being the protagonist. In “We Are All Astronauts”, 2013, various globes, ranging from 1890 to 2011, appear to float over a large table. The artist has eliminated geopolitical divisions between countries, continents and people by sanding the surface of each globe and allowing their dust to intermingle on the table top. He uses an ‘international sandpaper’ he produced from mineral samples gathered from all countries recognised by the United Nations. Finally, “Tropisme”, 2015, displays several plants known to have existed during the Cretaceous period. Shock-frozen at -196˚ centigrade by being dipped in liquid nitrogen, the plants are displayed in a sealed glass vitrine and kept refrigerated at –20˚C. As long as these plants from 65 million years ago are kept frozen and cared for by humans, they will continue to represent an interface between past and future.

https://likeyou.com/events/julian-charriere-for-they-that-sow-the-wind/

“Smart Art That Will Make You Reconsider Your Smartphone.” Apollo Magazine, 10 Mar. 2016, www.apollo-magazine.com/smart-art-that-will-make-you-reconsider-your-smartphone/.

Textile History in India Gujarat

 

 

The different Cloth styles: 

Patolu - Term used for silk weaving. The Warf or Weft threads are coloured in sections through the method of the tie and die. These were used to make intricate multi-coloured designs. These were exported to Indonesia where they had become part of the local custom and ceremony. 

Clothes have a certain sense of standing in society. Brands nowadays say a lot about the customer and their social standings. These were the very origins of "brand building". The find of fabric an cloth wore like the Patolu- in Indonesia was associated with high esteem. 

 

 

 

Patolu 19th century

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Manufacturing Muslin in Dhaka

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Painted and Printed Textiles

 

When I saw these works I was mind-blown by the intricacy and the dedication of the people creating the fabrics. With a brush with a single squirrel hair which looks sown was actually painted. The reason I am expanding this project in this manner is that in my items I had a lot of handmade/ baked jewellery which I made back in India. These beautiful shapes have not been used before and hence with the technique of painting over cloth I would want to make my own print. As in one of the styling designs, there was a "dupatta" and so I am expanding on that very idea through this research and taking the project forward. Furthermore, the reason I am looking into these techniques because I am rather fascinated by the process of making textures and textiles. I think that the diverse ways in which this is approached is immensely varied and I want to try and have a traditional approach to create something contemporary. 

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Stella McCartney

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Gareth Pugh

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Emmanuel Lacoste

 

 This artist works with the body and creating crutches for the body. As a support almost. As the words Suspend, surround and support. His work is very visceral and provoking. I wanted to use the concept of surround and how the body itself would surround the piece of jewellery which would act as the work itself.

Emmanuel Lacoste

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Naomi Filmer

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Naomi Filmer

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 Naomi's work is fascinating as she uses the concept of surround and makes intricate jewellery which goes around the fingers as well as the shoulders and other body parts. I particularly love her work as it bridges the gap between contemporary jewellery making practices and fashion. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An der Alster 1

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The building with interesting architecture is situated at the intersection between the Hamburg’s lively downtown and its urban landscape rich in water and mature trees. It is at the transition from city to nature, and the gateway building to the bustling metropolitan core. It is a fine example of modern German architecture. - https://www.designyourway.net/blog/inspiration/modern-architecture-in-germany-26-interesting-buildings/ 

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Saif Faisal 

 

 

His work is very simplistic yet effective. Elements such as simple colours, durable materials as well as efficient usage are the key to this design. Hence I chose his work to look at in terms of design, as we were told to also keep it simple and functional as well as creative. 

Fernando and Humberto Campana Corallo Sofa

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Fernando and Humberto Campana Corallo Sofa

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I chose this particular artist's work as I thought her work was best suited in context to my intentions. I wanted to create a small and intricate work with another material and not just print and paper. After having to see her work, I knew I wanted to create a similar impact as she is creating. This helped me think of the possible materials I could work with on a smaller scale such as threads or a transparent sheet and black marker. However, I left as though both of those mediums would not do justice to my work. Looking around at the art shop I found the wires and thought it would be the best suited for my project.

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Sarah Charlesworth

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sarah Charlesworth

 

Moving forward Charlesworth's work is a depiction of turning the communication of ideas through words to a more visual depiction of the emotion and storyline. She explores the idea of mythology and characters and goddesses, through her still frames of images. This gave me the idea to dissect the meaning of the words and take the project to the next level, by eliminating the words or adding text with suitable images behind them. 

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Camden Market

 

 

I went to Camden Town and was just exploring this new place in London. As I saw the different shops I came across these different words and the images associated with them. This is when I realised that it connects with the idea I had of using texts and words, to layer over images which have the feel of the words. There were the other images in which the words were made with things such as doorknobs, doors and the things around which I found very exciting. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mark Borthwick

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About 

 

Depicting his own life with his wife. He talks about how his house is always buzzing with music and people and laughter. This image has personal connotations to it as it a personal depiction of what his life looks at and very effectively communicates the movement, the sound and the joy. 

Through his work, I am drawn to his idea of communication and storytelling and explore the same through my work. Applying the idea of the brief Do Undo-Redo. My work has a narration, as well as the aspects of dressing and undressing, are explored. 

Styled

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Book Reference

The help 

 

I read this book back in the 7th grade and remember being touched and moved in ways I never thought I would be. It was a beautiful fictional depiction of the lives of negro women living in a society dominated by the White American women. A symbol of perfection and beauty and poise, whereas the Negro women had the taste of reality and were more tangible and human. This was to show the disparity in the society as a reflection of the cruelty and inhuman behaviour towards these women who worked as servants for the rich Americans. 

 

This previous reading, as well as the movie, helped me tie in aspects of Carrie Mae Weems work and how she expresses the same in a different manner. 

 

 

The Help: Kathryn Stockett

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Work Displayed At Tate

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Showcasing the absurdity of the situation where the Britishers have inhabited an Indian house in which they live as though nothing about their lives has changed. This is shown through the way they are dressed, in their formal shirts and tie, and the house is Indian, with Indian furniture and style. Aiming at shedding light upon the disparity of the situation.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Historical Reference 

 

In the lands of India, the actual translation of the word purdah is screen or veil. Purdah is the practice that includes the seclusion of women from public observation by wearing concealing clothing from head to toe and by the use of high walls, curtains, and screens erected within the home. Purdah is practised by Muslims and by various Hindus, especially in India. The limits imposed by this practice vary according to different countries and class levels. Generally, those women in the upper and middle class are more likely to practice all aspects of purdah because they can afford to not work outside the home.

 

Purdah probably developed in Persia and later spread to Middle Eastern lands.  Purdah flourished in ancient Babylon. No woman could go outside unless masked and chaperoned by a male from the family. Even parts of the household were separated as a practice of segregation. The ancient Assyrian women also had to remain inside behind curtains where darkness and little breeze prevailed. In the 7th century A.D., during the Arab conquest of what is now Iran, the Muslims probably adapted the idea of purdah to their religion. The Prophet Muhammad reintroduced the custom as part of the Islamic tenets of faith. As time went by the laws associated with purdah became more severe. During the British domination in India, the observance of purdah was very strictly adhered to and widespread among the Muslims.

 

Some critics see purdah as an evil influence that has only suffocated the rights of women and perpetuated male chauvinism. They point towards the Muslims in India who have shut off women from the outside world in order to make them ignorant of the practicalities of life. To them, it has deprived the woman of economic independence and forces these females to produce chauvinistic boys and submissive girls. In order to keep females submissive, women know only what their fathers, husbands, and sons want them to know. Critics see women who practice purdah as having no voice or free will.

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Spirals :

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  Louise Bourgeois 

 

The spiral is important to me. It is a twist. As a child, after washing tapestries in the river, I would turn and twist and ring them … Later I would dream of my father’s mistress. I would do it in my dreams by ringing her neck. The spiral – I love the spiral – represents control and freedom.

(Quoted in Gardner 1994, p.68.)

 

Spirals is a suite of twelve oil-based woodcut prints on Japanese paper. The prints are arranged in a grid formation with three rows of four prints. Each print depicts a spiral, with nine of the prints using red ink, two using black ink and one using blue ink. The spirals range in shape and size, with some of the spirals contained within the limits of the paper and others continuing beyond the picture plane. The line of each spiral is also different in each print, varying in thickness, with some more geometric and precise in style and others loose and flowing. The spirals were created by drawing on traditional Japanese printmaking methods and are printed on Japanese paper. The grain from the wood used to produce the prints is clearly visible on the spirals.

 

The spiral appears frequently in both Bourgeois’s sculpture and her work on paper, including in A l’infini 2008–9 (Tate AL00357), where the spiral is representative of an endless natural cycle. Specifically, the spiral is often used by Bourgeois to represent the constant continuation of birth, life and rebirth, sometimes associated directly with motherhood, as can be seen in Nature Study 1986 (Tate AL00228). Bourgeois explained her repeated return to the imagery of the spiral:

 

For Bourgeois the spiral represents the abstract concepts of control and freedom as well as being invested with a personal symbolism. The sense of the artist exerting a level of control over her work is compounded by the decision to display the prints in a grid formation. The use of the grid is also a common feature of Bourgeois’s works on paper and is perhaps a reference to her training in geometry at the Sorbonne, the study of which had a direct impact on her artwork: ‘My minimalism came from my love of geometry. Sometimes it is inherently dynamic: a study of conflicting forces, which is never static’ (quoted in Frances Morris (ed.), Louise Bourgeois, exhibition catalogue, Tate Modern, London 2007, p.148). The use of both free-flowing and precise spiralling lines in Spirals could also be a reference to the duality of control and freedom as described by the artist.

 

Bourgeois’s use of the colour red in Spirals is another recurring characteristic of her work. The artist often uses the colour to refer to the extremes of human emotion. Bourgeois said: ‘Red is an affirmation at any cost – regardless of the dangers in fighting – of contradiction, of aggression. It’s symbolic of the intensity of the emotions involved’ (quoted in Askew and d’Offay 2013, p.85). In this work, the colour red appears most frequently in the twelve prints. However, the colours blue and black also appear. Bourgeois contrasts blue and black in a diary entry of 1986: ‘Nothing can satisfy the need to cover everything in blue. The opposite is in black – black from suicide, a black point, the deep black of a well, the solemnity … That is why blue pinches my heart. It’s a defence, like overeating sugar’ (quoted in Morris 2007, p.83). In her predominant use of red tempered with blue and black, the artist may have been reinforcing the use of the spiral as symbolic of the cyclical nature of life, whereby moments of intense emotion and aggression alternate with periods of contentment, thoughtfulness, depression and solemnity.

Tate. “'Spirals', Louise Bourgeois, 2005.” Tate, Tate, www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/bourgeois-spirals-al00346.

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